COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION •Evolution of Computer Systems •Computer T ypes •Functional units •Basic operational concepts •Bus structures •Memory location and...

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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND  ARCHITECTURE

Slides Courtesy of Carl Hamacher,”Computer Organization,” Fifth edition,McGrawHill

COMPUTER  ORGANISATION AND  ARCHITECTURE • The components from which computers are built,  i.e., computer organization.  • In contrast, computer architecture is the science of  integrating those components to achieve a level of  functionality and performance. • It is as if computer organization examines the  lumber, bricks, nails, and other building material • While computer architecture looks at the design of  the house.

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION •Evolution of Computer Systems •Computer Types •Functional units •Basic operational concepts •Bus structures •Memory location and addresses •Memory operations •Addressing modes •Design of a computer system •Instruction and instruction sequencing, •RISC versus CISC.

INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the computer hardware,  software and their interconnection, and it also  discusses concepts like computer types,  evolution of computers, functional units, basic  operations, RISC and CISC systems. 

Brief History of Computer  Evolution

Two phases: 1. before VLSI 1945 – 1978  • • • •

ENIAC IAS IBM PDP‐8

2. VLSI       •

VLSI = Very Large Scale Integration

1978  Æ present day

microprocessors !

Evolution of Computers FIRST GENERATION (1945 – 1955) • Program and data reside in the same memory  (stored program concepts – John von Neumann) • ALP was made used to write programs • Vacuum tubes were used to implement the functions  (ALU & CU design) • Magnetic core and magnetic tape storage devices are  used • Using electronic vacuum tubes, as the switching  components

SECOND GENERATION  (1955 – 1965) Transistor were used to design ALU & CU HLL is used (FORTRAN) To convert HLL to MLL compiler were used Separate I/O processor were developed to operate in  parallel with CPU, thus improving the performance • Invention of the transistor which was faster, smaller  and required considerably less power to operate • • • •

THIRD GENERATION  (1965‐1975) • IC technology improved  • Improved IC technology helped in designing low cost, high  speed processor and memory modules • Multiprogramming, pipelining concepts were incorporated • DOS allowed efficient and coordinate operation of computer  system with multiple users • Cache and virtual memory concepts were developed • More than one circuit on a single silicon chip became  available

FOURTH GENERATION  (1975‐1985) • CPU – Termed as microprocessor • INTEL, MOTOROLA, TEXAS,NATIONAL  semiconductors started developing microprocessor • Workstations, microprocessor (PC) & Notebook  computers were developed  • Interconnection of different computer for better  communication LAN,MAN,WAN  • Computational speed increased by 1000 times  • Specialized processors like Digital Signal Processor  were also developed

BEYOND THE FOURTH GENERATION (1985 – TILL DATE)

• • • •

E‐Commerce, E‐ banking, home office ARM, AMD, INTEL, MOTOROLA High speed processor ‐ GHz speed Because of submicron IC technology lot of  added features in small size

COMPUTER TYPES Computers are classified based on the  parameters like • Speed of operation • Cost • Computational power • Type of application

DESK TOP COMPUTER • Processing &storage units, visual display &audio uits,  keyboards • Storage media‐Hard disks, CD‐ROMs • Eg: Personal computers which is used in homes and offices • Advantage: Cost effective, easy to operate, suitable for general  purpose educational or business application

NOTEBOOK COMPUTER • Compact form of personal computer (laptop) • Advantage is portability

WORK STATIONS • More computational power than PC •Costlier •Used to solve complex problems which arises in engineering application (graphics, CAD/CAM etc)

ENTERPRISE SYSTEM (MAINFRAME) •More computational power •Larger storage capacity •Used for business data processing in large organization •Commonly referred as servers or super computers

SERVER SYSTEM • Supports large volumes of data which frequently need to be accessed or to be modified •Supports request response operation

SUPER COMPUTERS •Faster than mainframes •Helps in calculating large scale numerical and algorithm calculation in short span of time •Used for aircraft design and testing, military application and weather forecasting

HANDHELD • Also called a PDA (Personal  Digital Assistant). • A computer that fits into a  pocket, runs on batteries, and  is used while holding the unit  in your hand. • Typically used as an  appointment book, address  book, calculator, and notepad. • Can be synchronized with a  personal microcomputer as a  backup.

Basic Terminology •

Computer



– A device that accepts input,  processes data, stores data, and  produces output, all according to  a series of stored instructions.

– A computer program that tells  the computer how to perform  particular tasks.

• •

Software

Hardware

Network – Two or more computers and  other devices that are  connected, for the purpose of  sharing data and programs.

– Includes the electronic and  mechanical devices that process  the data; refers to the computer  as well as peripheral devices.



Peripheral devices – Used to expand the computer’s  input, output and storage  capabilities.

Basic Terminology •

Input – Whatever is put into a computer system.



Data – Refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, or ideas.



Information – The results of the computer storing data as bits and bytes; the words,  numbers, sounds, and graphics.



Output – Consists of the processing results produced by a computer.



Processing – Manipulation of the data in many ways.



Memory – Area of the computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed,  stored, or output.



Storage – Area of the computer that holds data on a permanent basis when it is not  immediately needed for processing.

Basic Terminology •Assembly language program (ALP) – Programs are written using mnemonics •Mnemonic – Instruction will be in the form of English like form •Assembler – is a software which converts ALP to MLL (Machine Level Language) •HLL (High Level Language) – Programs are written using English like statements •Compiler - Convert HLL to MLL, does this job by reading source program at once

Basic Terminology •Interpreter – Converts HLL to MLL, does this job statement by statement •System software – Program routines which aid the user in the execution of programs eg: Assemblers, Compilers •Operating system – Collection of routines responsible for controlling and coordinating all the activities in a computer system

Computing Systems

Computers have two kinds of components: • Hardware, consisting of its physical devices  (CPU, memory, bus, storage devices, ...) • Software, consisting of the programs it has  (Operating system, applications, utilities, ...)

Calvin College

FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF  COMPUTER • Input Unit • Output Unit • Central processing Unit (ALU and Control Units) • Memory • Bus Structure

The Big Picture

Processor Input Control Memory

ALU

Output

Since 1946 all computers have had 5 components!!!

IMPORTANT SLIDE !

Function

• ALL computer functions are: – Data PROCESSING – Data STORAGE – Data MOVEMENT – CONTROL

• NOTHING ELSE!

Data = Information Coordinates How Information is Used

INPUT UNIT: •Converts the external world data to a binary format, which can be understood by CPU •Eg: Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick etc

OUTPUT UNIT: •Converts the binary format data to a format that a common man can understand •Eg: Monitor, Printer, LCD, LED etc

CPU •The “brain” of the machine •Responsible for carrying out computational task •Contains ALU, CU, Registers •ALU Performs Arithmetic and logical operations •CU Provides control signals in accordance with some timings which in turn controls the execution process •Register Stores data and result and speeds up the operation

Example Add R1, R2 T1

Enable R1

T2

Enable R2

T3

Enable ALU for addition operation

T4

•Control unit works with a reference signal called processor clock

T1 T2

•Processor divides the operations into basic steps

R1

R2

•Each basic step is executed in one clock cycle R2

MEMORY

•Stores data, results, programs

•Two class of storage (i) Primary (ii) Secondary

•Two types are RAM or R/W memory and ROM read only memory

•ROM is used to store data and program which is not going to change.

•Secondary storage is used for bulk storage or mass storage

Basic Operational Concepts

Basic Function of Computer  • To Execute a given task as per the appropriate program • Program consists of list of instructions stored in  memory

Interconnection between Processor and Memory

Registers Registers are fast stand-alone storage locations that hold data temporarily. Multiple registers are needed to facilitate the operation of the CPU. Some of these registers are ‰ Two registers-MAR (Memory Address Register) and MDR (Memory Data Register) : To handle the data transfer between main memory and processor. MARHolds addresses, MDR-Holds data ‰ Instruction register (IR) : Hold the Instructions that is currently being executed ‰ Program counter: Points to the next instructions that is to be fetched from memory

•(PC) (MAR)( the contents of PC transferred to MAR) •(MAR) (Address bus) Select a particular memory location •Issues RD control signals •Reads instruction present in memory and loaded into MDR •Will be placed in IR (Contents transferred from MDR to IR)

•Instruction present in IR will be decoded by which processor understand what operation it has to perform •Increments the contents of PC by 1, so that it points to the next instruction address •If data required for operation is available in register, it performs the operation •If data is present in memory following sequence is performed

•Address of the data

MAR

•MAR Address bus select memory location where is issued RD signal •Reads data via data bus

MDR

•From MDR data can be directly routed to ALU or it can be placed in register and then operation can be performed •Results of the operation can be directed towards output device, memory or register •Normal execution preempted (interrupt)

Interrupt

• An interrupt is a request from I/O device for  service by processor • Processor provides requested service by  executing interrupt service routine (ISR) • Contents of PC, general registers, and some  control information are stored in memory . • When ISR completed, processor restored, so  that interrupted program may continue 

BUS STRUCTURE Connecting CPU and memory The CPU and memory are normally connected by three groups of connections, each called a bus: data bus, address bus and control bus

Connecting CPU and memory using three buses

BUS STRUCTURE •Group of wires which carries information form CPU to peripherals or vice – versa •Single bus structure: Common bus used to communicate between peripherals and microprocessor

INPUT

MEMORY

PROCESSOR

OUTPUT

SINGLE BUS STRUCTURE

Continued:• To

improve performance multibus structure can be used

•In two – bus structure : One bus can be used to fetch instruction other can be used to fetch data, required for execution.

•Thus improving the performance ,but cost increases

CONTROL BUS

A2

A1

A0

Selected location

0

0

0

0th Location

0

0

1

1st Location

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

W/R

CS

A0 A1 A2

RD PROCESSOR

ADDRESS BUS D0

D7

D7

D0

DATA BUS

Cont:•23 = 8 i.e. 3 address line is required to select 8 location •In general 2x = n where x number of address lines (address bit) and n is number of location •Address bus : unidirectional : group of wires which carries address information bits form processor to peripherals (16,20,24 or more parallel signal lines)

Cont:•Databus: bidirectional : group of wires which carries data information bit form processor to peripherals and vice – versa •Controlbus: bidirectional: group of wires which carries control signals form processor to peripherals and vice – versa •Figure below shows address, data and control bus and their connection with peripheral and microprocessor

PERFORMANCE •Time taken by the system to execute a program •Parameters which influence the performance are •Clock speed •Type and number of instructions available •Average time required to execute an instruction •Memory access time •Power dissipation in the system •Number of I/O devices and types of I/O devices connected •The data transfer capacity of the bus

MEMORY LOCATIONS AND ADDRESSES •Main memory is the second major subsystem in a computer. It consists of a collection of storage locations, each with a unique identifier, called an address. •Data is transferred to and from memory in groups of bits called words. A word can be a group of 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits or 64 bits (and growing). •If the word is 8 bits, it is referred to as a byte. The term “byte” is so common in computer science that sometimes a 16-bit word is referred to as a 2-byte word, or a 32-bit word is referred to as a 4-byte word.

Figure 5.3 Main memory

Address space •To access a word in memory requires an identifier. Although programmers use a name to identify a word (or a collection of words), at the hardware level each word is identified by an address. •The total number of uniquely identifiable locations in memory is called the address space. •For example, a memory with 64 kilobytes (16 address line required) and a word size of 1 byte has an address space that ranges from 0 to 65,535.

i Memory addresses are defined using unsigned binary integers.

Example 1 A computer has 32 MB (megabytes) of memory. How many bits are needed to address any single byte in memory? Solution The memory address space is 32 MB, or 225 (25 × 220). This means that we need log2 225, or 25 bits, to address each byte. Example 2 A computer has 128 MB of memory. Each word in this computer is eight bytes. How many bits are needed to address any single word in memory? Solution The memory address space is 128 MB, which means 227. However, each word is eight (23) bytes, which means that we have 224 words. This means that we need log2 224, or 24 bits, to address each word.

Assignment of byte addresses •

Little Endian (e.g., in DEC, Intel) » low order byte stored at lowest address » byte0 byte1 byte2 byte3

• Eg: 46,78,96,54 (32 bit data) •

H BYTE

• • • • •

8000 8001 8002 8003 8004

L BYTE 54 96 78 46

|

Big Endian

• Big Endian (e.g., in IBM, Motorolla, Sun, HP) » high order byte stored at lowest address » byte3 byte2 byte1 byte0 • Programmers/protocols should be careful  when transferring binary data between Big  Endian and Little Endian machines

• In case of 16 bit data, aligned words begin at  byte addresses of 0,2,4,…………………………. • In case of 32 bit data, aligned words begin at  byte address of 0,4,8,…………………………. • In case of 64 bit data, aligned words begin at  byte addresses of 0,8,16,……………………….. • In some cases words can start at an arbitrary  byte address also then, we say that word  locations are unaligned

MEMORY OPERATIONS • Today, general‐purpose computers use a set of instructions called a  program to process data. •

A computer executes the program to create output data from input  data

• Both program instructions and data operands are stored in memory • Two basic operations requires in memory access • Load operation  (Read or Fetch)‐Contents of specified  memory location are read by processor • Store operation  (Write)‐ Data from the processor is stored in  specified memory location

• INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE:‐Complete  instruction set of the processor • BASIC 4 TYPES OF OPERATION:‐ • Data transfer between memory and  processor register • Arithmetic and logic operation • Program sequencing and control • I/O transfer

Register transfer notation (RTN) Transfer between processor registers & memory, between  processor register & I/O devices Memory locations, registers and I/O register names are  identified by a symbolic  name in uppercase alphabets • LOC,PLACE,MEM are the address of memory location • R1 , R2,… are processor registers • DATA_IN, DATA_OUT are I/O registers

•Contents of location is indicated by using square brackets [ ] •RHS of RTN always denotes a values, and is called Source •LHS of RTN always denotes a symbolic name where value is to be stored and is called destination •Source contents are not modified •Destination contents are overwritten

Examples of RTN  statements



R2                             [LOCN]



R4                             [R3] +[R2]

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE  NOTATION (ALN) RTN is easy to understand and but cannot be  used to represent machine instructions • Mnemonics can be converted to machine  language, which processor understands  using assembler Eg: 1. MOVE  LOCN, R2 2. ADD    R3, R2, R4



TYPE OF INSTRUCTION

¾Three address instruction •Syntax: Operation source 1, source 2, destination •Eg: ADD D,E,F where D,E,F are memory location •Advantage: Single instruction can perform the complete operation •Disadvantage : Instruction code will be too large to fit in one word location in memory

TWO ADDRESS INSTRUCTION •Syntax : Operation source, destination •Eg:

MOVE E,F ADD

D,F

MOVE D,F OR

ADD E,F

Perform ADD A,B,C using 2 instructions MOVE B,C ADD A,C

™Disadvantage: Single instruction is not sufficient to perform the entire operation.

ONE ADDRESS  INSTRUCTION



Syntax‐ Operation source/destination In this type either a source or destination  operand is mentioned in the instruction Other operand is implied to be a processor  register called Accumulator  Eg: ADD  B (general)

• • •

Load D;                ACC                      [memlocation _D] ADD E;                ACC                      (ACC) +(E) STORE F;        memlocation_ F          (ACC  )

• • •

Zero address  instruction • Location of all operands are defined implicitly • Operands are stored in a structure called  pushdown stack

Continued ¾ If processor supports ALU operations one data in memory and  other in register then the instruction sequence is • MOVE      D, Ri • ADD      E, Ri • MOVE   Ri, F ¾ If processor supports ALU operations only with registers then  one has to follow the instruction sequence given below • LOAD    D, Ri • LOAD     E, Rj • ADD       Ri, Rj • MOVE    Rj, F

Basic Instruction Cycle

• Basic computer operation cycle – Fetch the instruction from memory into a control  register (PC) – Decode the instruction – Locate the operands used by the instruction – Fetch operands from memory (if necessary) – Execute the operation in processor registers – Store the results in the proper place – Go back to step 1 to fetch the next instruction

INSTRUCTION EXECUTION & STRIAGHT LINE  SEQUENCING Address Begin execution here

Contents

i

Move A,R0

i+4

Add B,R0

i+8

Move R0,C . . .

}

3-instruction program

segment

A . . .

B

Data for Program . .

C

C

[A]+[B]

• PC – Program counter: hold the address of the next  instruction to be executed • Straight line sequencing: If fetching and executing of  instructions is carried out one by one from  successive addresses of memory, it is called straight  line sequencing. • Major two phase of instruction execution  • Instruction fetch phase: Instruction is fetched form  memory and is placed in instruction register IR • Instruction execute phase: Contents of IR is decoded  and  processor carries out the operation either by  reading data from memory or registers.

BRANCHING

A straight line program for adding n numbers Using a loop to add n numbers

BRANCHING • Branch instruction are those which changes the  normal sequence of execution. • Sequence can be changed either conditionally or  unconditionally. • Accordingly we have conditional branch instructions  and unconditional branch instruction. • Conditional branch instruction changes the sequence  only when certain conditions are met. • Unconditional branch instruction changes the  sequence of execution irrespective of condition of  the results.

CONDITION CODES ¾ CONDITIONAL CODE FLAGS: The processor keeps track of  information about the results of various operations for  use by subsequent conditional branch instructions • N – Negative     1 if results are Negative 0 if results are Positive • Z – Zero              1 if results are Zero 0 if results are Non zero • V – Overflow      1 if arithmetic overflow occurs 0 non overflow occurs • C – Carry             1 if carry and from MSB bit 0 if there is no carry from MSB bit

Figure Format and different instruction types

Processing the instructions Simple computer, like most computers, uses machine cycles. A cycle is made of three phases: fetch, decode and execute. During the fetch phase, the instruction whose address is determined by the PC is obtained from the memory and loaded into the IR. The PC is then incremented to point to the next instruction. During the decode phase, the instruction in IR is decoded and the required operands are fetched from the register or from memory. During the execute phase, the instruction is executed and the results are placed in the appropriate memory location or the register. Once the third phase is completed, the control unit starts the cycle again, but now the PC is pointing to the next instruction. The process continues until the CPU reaches a HALT instruction.

Types of Addressing Modes The different ways in which the location of the operand is  specified in an instruction are referred to as addressing  modes • • • • • • •

Immediate Addressing Direct Addressing  Indirect Addressing Register Addressing Register Indirect Addressing Relative Addressing Indexed Addressing

Immediate Addressing • Operand is given explicitly in the instruction • Operand = Value • e.g. ADD 5 – Add 5 to contents of accumulator – 5 is operand

• No memory reference to fetch data • Fast • Limited range Instruction opcode operand

Direct Addressing • Address field contains address of operand • Effective address (EA) = address field (A) • e.g.  ADD A – Add contents of cell A to accumulator – Look in memory at address A for operand

• Single memory reference to access data • No additional calculations to work out effective address • Limited address space

Direct Addressing Diagram Instruction Opcode

Address A Memory

Operand

Indirect Addressing (1)

• Memory cell pointed to by address field  contains the address of (pointer to) the  operand • EA = [A] – Look in A, find address (A) and look there for  operand • e.g. ADD (A) – Add contents of cell pointed to by contents of A to  accumulator

Indirect Addressing (2)

• Large address space  • 2n where n = word length • May be nested, multilevel, cascaded – e.g. EA = (((A))) • Draw the diagram yourself

• Multiple memory accesses to find operand • Hence slower

Indirect Addressing Diagram Instruction Opcode

Address A Memory Pointer to operand

Operand

Register Addressing (1)

• Operand is held in register named in address  field • EA = R • Limited number of registers • Very small address field needed  – Shorter instructions – Faster instruction fetch

Register Addressing (2)

• No memory access • Very fast execution • Very limited address space • Multiple registers helps performance – Requires good assembly programming or compiler  writing

Register Addressing Diagram Instruction Opcode

Register Address R Registers

Operand

Register Indirect  Addressing • C.f. indirect addressing • EA = [R] • Operand is in memory cell pointed to by  contents of register R • Large address space (2n) • One fewer memory access than indirect  addressing

Register Indirect  Addressing Diagram Instruction Opcode

Register Address R

Memory

Registers

Pointer to Operand

Operand

Indexed  Addressing

• EA = X + [R] • Address field hold two values – X = constant value (offset) – R = register that holds address of memory  locations – or vice versa `(Offset given as constant or in the index register) Add 20(R1),R2  or Add  1000(R1),R2

Indexed  Addressing Diagram Instruction Opcode Register R Constant Value Memory Registers

Pointer to Operand

+

Operand

Relative Addressing

A version of displacement addressing R = Program counter, PC EA = X + (PC) i.e. get operand from X bytes away from  current location pointed to by PC • c.f locality of reference & cache usage • • • •

Auto increment mode

• The effective address of the operand is the  contents of a register specified in the instruction. • After accessing the operand, the contents of this  register are automatically incremented to point  to the next item in the list • EA=[Ri]; Increment Ri        ‐‐‐‐ (Ri)+ Eg:        Add (R2)+,R0

Auto decrement mode

• The contents of a register specified in the  instruction are first automatically  decremented and are then used as the  effective address of the operand • Decrement Ri; EA= [Ri] ‐‐‐‐‐ ‐(Ri) 

Addressing Architecture • Memory‐to‐Memory architecture – All of the access of addressing ‐> Memory – Have only control registers such PC – Too many memory accesses

• Register‐to‐Register architecture – Allow only one memory address • “load”, “store” instructions

• Register‐to‐Memory architecture – Program lengths and # of memory accesses tend to be intermediate between the above two architectures

• Single accumulator architecture – Have no register profile – Too many memory accesses

• Stack architecture – Data manipulation instructions use no address. – Too many memory (stack) accesses – Useful for rapid interpretation of high‐level lang. programs in which the  intermediate code representation uses stack operations.

Addressing Modes

• Implied mode – The operand is specified implicitly in the definition  of the opcode.

• Immediate mode – The actual operand is specified in the instruction  itself.

Addressing Modes (Summary)

Base register LDA #ADRS(R1) ACC <- M[R1+ADRS]

Instruction Set Architecture • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Architectures – Memory accesses are restricted to load and store instruction, and data  manipulation instructions are register to register. – Addressing modes are limited in number. – Instruction formats are all of the same length. – Instructions perform elementary operations

• CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) Architectures – – – –

Memory access is directly available to most types of instruction. Addressing mode are substantial in number. Instruction formats are of different lengths. Instructions perform both elementary and complex operations.

Instruction Set Architecture • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)  Architectures – Large register file – Control unit: simple and hardwired – pipelining

• CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)  Architectures – Register file: smaller than in a RISC – Control unit: often micro‐programmed – Current trend • CISC operation Æ a sequence of RISC‐like operations

CISC Examples

• Examples of CISC processors are the  – System/360(excluding the 'scientific' Model 44),  – VAX,  – PDP‐11,  – Motorola 68000 family – Intel x86 architecture based processors.

Pro’s  • Emphasis on hardware • Includes multi-clock complex instructions • Memory-to-memory: "LOAD" and "STORE" incorporated in instructions • Small code sizes, high cycles per second • Transistors used for storing complex instructions

Con’s • That is, the incorporation of older instruction sets  into new generations of processors tended to force  growing complexity. • Many specialized CISC instructions were not used  frequently enough to justify their existence.  • Because each CISC command must be translated by  the processor into tens or even hundreds of lines of  microcode, it tends to run slower than an equivalent  series of simpler commands that do not require so  much translation. 

RISC Examples • Apple iPods (custom ARM7TDMI SoC) • Apple iPhone (Samsung ARM1176JZF) • Palm and PocketPC PDAs and smartphones (Intel  XScale family, Samsung SC32442 ‐ ARM9) • Nintendo Game Boy Advance (ARM7) • Nintendo DS (ARM7, ARM9) • Sony Network Walkman (Sony in‐house ARM based  chip) • Some Nokia and Sony Ericsson mobile phones

Pro’s • Emphasis on software • Single-clock, reduced instruction only • Register to register: "LOAD" and "STORE" are independent instructions • Low cycles per second, large code sizes • Spends more transistors on memory registers

Performance

• The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program.

Characteristics of RISC Vs CISC  processors No RISC 1 Simple instructions taking one

CISC

cycle

Complex instructions taking multiple cycles

2

Instructions are executed by hardwired control unit

Instructions are executed by microprogramed control unit

3 4 5

Few instructions

Many instructions

Fixed format instructions

Variable format instructions

Few addressing mode, and most instructions have register to register addressing mode

Many addressing modes

6 7

Multiple register set

Single register set

Highly pipelined

Not pipelined or less pipelined

SUMMARY

Computer components and its function Evolution and types of computer Instruction and instruction sequencing Addressing modes RISC Vs CISC

REFERENCES

• Carl Hammacher,”Computer  Organization,”Fifth Edition,McGrawHill  International Edition,2002 • P.Pal Chaudhuri,”Compter Organization and  Design”,2nd Edition ,PHI,2003 • William Stallings,”Computer organization and  Architecture‐Designing for  Performance”,PHI,2004