JOURNAL OF DRUG ISSUES

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Journalof Drug Issues

büD L Recrrt(f 93f -1995) F*dtt andEditorI 970-I 995 Uoivcnity nrihstt l:rertEotro 8.rh. Flüidr Stic univcrrity F3bäqt Cby thirtrdty of NcwYort LRral O.ESär Arroorre Eonoas Ron L. Atcrs, University of Florida [^rura E. Bedard, Florida State University Pavel Bem, 7he National Drug Commission of the Czech Republic Bruce Benson, Florida State University William R. BIount, University of South Florida Lorenz Boellinger, Bremen University (Germany) Robert Booth, University of Colorado Robert S. Broadhead, University of Conneclicu! Barry S. Brown, University of North Carolina Khanh Bui, Pepperdine University Shane Butler, Trinity College, Dublin Jonathan P. Caulkins, Carnegie Mellon University Ted Chiricos, Florida State University John K. Cochran, University of South Florida Ross Coomber, University of Greenwich (England) C. Elaine Cummins, American University Geoffiey M. Curran, HSR&D Field Programfor Mental Health Dean Dabney, Georgia State University Richard Dembo, University of South Florida Michael Fendrich, University of Illinois at Chicago Stefano Ferracuti, University of Rome (llaly) Robert Fiorentine, University of Calilornia, Los Angeles Christine E. Grella, UCLA Drug Abuse Research Cönter Joseph R. Guydish, University of California, San Francisco Yih-lng Hser, UCUI Drug Abuse Research Center Geoffrey P. Hunt, Institute.for Scientific Analysis Martin lguchi, RllrlD James Inciardi, University of Delaware Valerie Johnson, Rutgers University Kcith M. Kilty, Ohio State University

Pueltcartol Goonotrlaron J e a n n eM e l i o r i BustttEssMlHacEn Claire A. Knox Asssrlxr Eorons Tara Shelley Tom Heddleston

Dirk J. Korl Universily of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) Christopher P. Krebs, Research Triangle Institute Spencer De Li, Florida Slate University Alan R. Lifson, Universily of Minnesota Douglas Longshore, RIND Danief Maier-Katktn, Florida Stare University C. Aaron McNeece, Florida State University Michael Montagne, MassaclruseltsCollege of Pharmacy & Allied Health Sciences Patricia Morgan , University of California, Berkeley Kenrad E. Nelson, Joftns ltopkins University Dale Nute, Florida State University Margaret Polinsky, University of California, Los Angeles Michael L. Prendergast,UCLA Dmg Abuse Research Center David Rasmussen, Florida Slate University Wif liam M. Rhodes,läl Associates Judith A. Richman, University of lllinois al Chicago Paul Roman, Universily of Georgia James F. Rooney, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg Frederick Rotgers, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Wilf iam J. Sonnenstuhl,Cornell University Chris Stewart, University of Alabama Ray Surrette, Universily ofCentral Florida Per Vaglum, University of Oslo (Norway) David Vlahov, Johns Hopkins University Jean Weflisch, University of California, Los Angeles Helene Raskin White, Rulgers University, Center lor A lcohol Studies Kristin Winokur, Florida Department of Juvenile Justice

Volume32,Number2, Spring2002

Coxn'noNTrNG THEPRoHrBrrroN Moonl: Gnnuax Dnuc Por,rcyrNTHE2l"CnNTURy Lorenz Böllinger,StephanQuensel, Henning Schmidt-Semisch, Heino Stoever, Bruce Bullington,Daniel Maier-Katkin GuestEditors

www2. cri m i nolo gy.f su.ed u/-j dl E-mail: [email protected]

All RightsReserved @2002by theJoumalof Drug Issues

CoHreNrs Jounnator Dauc /ssuEs 357

Introduction:GermanDrug policy in the 2l st Century Bruce Bullington, baniel Maier-Kulkin

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Recent Develo_pments RegardingDrug Law and poricy in Germany and the Duropeancommuniry: The Evorutionof Drug contor in Europe Lorenz Böllinger

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Exclusionand Extinction:The Fight againstNarcotics in the Third

395

CannabisConsumptionjn Amsterdam,BremenandSanFrancisco: A ThreeCity Comparisonof Long_termCannabisConsumption SusanneBorchers_Tentpe[,Birgirn Kolte

413

crack cocaine in Germany:The current Stateof Affairs

Reich Holger Mach

I{eino Stoever 423

Crack CocaineUse in Hamburg,sOpenDrug Scene Katja Thane

431

socio-culturaland psychologicalAspectsof conremporary LSD use in Germany Susannaprepeliczal,

459

Pill Kick: The Pursuitof ..Ecstasy"at Techno_Events Ronald Hitzler

467

Broken Home or Drug Using peers:..Significant Relations,,? srephan euenser, paur Mcardre, Aoife Brinkrey, Auke H'iegersnn with M. Blom, M. Fitzgerald, R. Johnson, A.' Xoltr, I. Michels, A. pierolini, R. pos, I. Stoeckel

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PrimaryDrug prevention:Developmentsin Germany sincethe 1970s peter Franzkowiak

503

Drug-substitution Treatmentin Germany:A critical overview of Its Ihstory, Legislation,and Currentpractice

523

@2002 ev rxe JounNau or Dnuc lssues

Treatment Heroin-based Ingo llja Michels

543

The Efficacyof ForcedTreatment Harald Hans Koerner

553

Drugs and Driving: DangerousYouth or Anxious Adults? Lorenz Böllinger, Stephan Quensel

567

The Influenceof Drug Policy on TransportationPolicy Decisions Juergen Neunteyer

573

Drug SubstitutionTreatmentand NeedleExchangeProgramsin German and EuropeanPrisons Heino Stoever

lrurnooucroN: Grnrrrnru Dnuc Polrcv rNTHE21",

Crruruny

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ConsumptionRooms:A Middle CroundbetweenHealthand PublicOrder Concerns Heino Stoever

607

The Medical Use of Cannabisin Germany Franjo Grotenhernrerr

635

Drug Checking:Monitoring the Contentsof New SyntheticDrugs Arlur Schroers

647

ControlledSmoking: Implicationsfor Researchon TobaccoUse Birgitta Kolte, LlenningSchmidt-Semisclt

667

ControlledDrinking as a TreatmentGoal in Germany

f Joachin Koerkel

689

What Do Hamburgersand Drug CareHave in Common?SomeUnorlhodox Remarkson the McDonaldizationand Rationalityof Drug Care Un'e E. Kernac.sies

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An Alternative to ContemporaryForms of Drug Control l Bettina Paul Henning Schmidt-Setni.rch,

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Appendix A: The Systemof "AcceptingDrug Work" in Germany

BnuceButrr'rclor.r,DnxrelMareR-K.trxrH PReururNlny CoumeNrs This issueof the Journal of Drug Issues(JDI) was first conceivedabout three yearsago in conversationsamong Bruce Bullington, the editor of theJDI: Danrel Maier-Katkin,Dean of the Schoolof Criminologyand CriminalJusticeat Florida state university (FSU); and Lorenz Böllinger, then Dean of the law faculty ar Bremen university. For severalyears membersof the FSU faculty (incluäing membersof theJDI editorialboard)hadbeeninvolvedin a seriesof intemational initiativesdirectedat exploring possibilitiesfor criminologicalresearchin other countries,especiallyin Centraland EasternEurope;relationships wereestablished with scholarsandprofessionals throughouttheregion.The imporlanceof this work, beyondthe inherentvalue of cross-culturalstudy (especiallyin a field concerned with drug use,policy and research- where it is immediatelyclearthat thingsare not the sameeverywhere),derivesfrom the extraordinarytransitionsunderwayall acrossEurope.In the west, the Europeanunion has emergedas a reality of still undefinedcentrality; and the entire continenthas been transformedby the fall of communism,the openingup of the eastand concomitantpopulationmovements, andtransnational crime and unrestnot known in Europein more than50 years.For all of thesereasons,the editor of JDI thoughtit importantto providereaderswirh cutting edge scholarshipby Europeanexpertson drug use,policy, and research. This specialissueon Germanyis the fourth in a seriesof specialpresentations that includeVolume 28, Number I (winter l99g) on Englandand wales; Volume 29, Number3 (Summer1999)on Holland;and Volume29, Number4 (Fall 1999) on central and EasternEurope.Two additionalspecialissuesare underway:one on injectionrooms throughoutEuropeand the other on emergingdrug policy in the CzechReoublic.

@ 2002 ev rxe Jounlau or DRuclssues

Pnepetrczrv

Vannini, C., & Venturini, M. 1999 Halluzinogene. Entwicklung der Forschung I93g bis in die Gegenwarr, Schwerpunkt Schweiz. Berlin: VWB. Watzlawick, P. 1996 ll/ie wirklich ist die wirklichkeit ? rl/ahn - Taeuschung - verstehen. Muenchen: Piper. Zinberg,N.E. 1 9 8 3 S o z i a l e K o n t r o l l m e c h a n i s m e nu n d s o z i a l e sL e r n e n i m u m f e l d d e s Rauschmittelkonsums. In D. Lettieri & R. Welz (Eds.), Dro genabhaeng igkei t. Unrs achen und Verlaufsforme n (pp. 256_266). Weinheim:Beltz. Zinberg, N.E. 1976 observations on the phenomenologyofconsciousnesschange.Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 8( I ).

P.l Krcr: THEpunsurrop "EcsrASy"ATTrc'ruoEvrrvrs Rounlo Hrrzlen skimming through cunent pubtications abou.t-Techno and Drugs.without rooking inro the more deraired distinctions between them, onegels lire iÄpr"rrion that the increasein the use.ofecstasy(MDMA)and thegrowthof ine ri"inr,Ä,i"r", especnry in the r990s, are highry conetated. in fact, mostecsrasy usersidentifyrhemselyes as Techno_fans,and those Techno_fanswh

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derivativesmarketed under the catLhattterm ,'ecsiasy" psychotropic.gut rheseactiveingredients "'Ä-piÄr^"rorogicary arc no! themäinprobreÄ n the ongoing ecstasyboomIn this article the writer investigatesseverar aspectsof the relationshipbetween specificcharacteristics ofthe Techno-cultureand the preference for.rrtury und other so-calledparfy drugs among its adherents. AII that we know about the actuarorigins of the Techno-curhrrestemsfrom thc stones that have subsequentrybeen tordlbout those ervents. Accordrng to these accounts,about l5 years ago there were huge, spontaneousparties that had been autonomouslyorganizedtakingpraceat moretr ressdeviantu*u., whoselocalions wereknown only to insiders.The events themselveswere describedas cons,strng ot. night-longdancingto rhythmical sound carpetsof purery electronicmuslc. It rs not knownexactlywhen the ideagerminated in thatsceneto enhancethedanceexpenence by consumingpsychoactivesubstancer, o. ho* the specialqualitiesof certain amphetaminederivativeswere discovered in this regard.

RonaldHitzler'Ph D ' is professor ot generalsociology at the Department of sociorogy(Fachbererch 12)' Universityof Dortmund'Addressle""no*"i"n?llniversitat Dortmund,D442zj Dorlmund/ Germany' TefiFax:+49/231n55'2817; E-mail:[email protected]; www.hitzrer-sozrorogie.de

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Hrzuen Despite these gaps in our knowledge about these early events,we are relatively familiar with the structuresof the Techno-sceneas a phenomenonof contemporary youth culture.In a generalsense,theseeventsare attendedby scoresofpeople who either revealor concealdiverseactivities having to do with Techno.The term "Techno" refers to a certain collective lifestyle, representedby various types of repetitive electronicmusic, in particularpattemsof dance,specialattitudesand uniquekinds of sociability. At the presenttime, around 1.5million Germanyouthsregularly participate in Techno events. Another 2 million personsare occasional participants and report frequently listening to Techno music. More than two thirds of the participantsare male. They range in age from 14 to 43 years, with an averageage of about 21. Interviews conductedwith participantssuggestthat they spendsubstantialamounts of money on theseparties and events.Among this study's respondents,more than halfsaid they spendbetweenabout$225and$676per month for recreationalactivities, or $2,700 to $8,100 yearly. This group constituteswhat we have identificd as an "organizational elite" among Techno scenemembers.z A heterogeneous,well-connected organizationalelite managesthe entire infrastruchre of the Techno-scene,with the exceptionof occasionalsmall-scaleillegal events.tn particular thesepersonsproduceand distributeinformation about the events, organizethe logistics of great "events" (Mega-Raves,rave tourism, streetparades), book clubs, hire disc jockeys, and produceand procuretechno-specilicrecordsand CDs. Somemembersofthis elite arealso involved in theproductionofcommercialized sceneclothesand accessories.A furtherand essentialfunction ofthe organizational elite consistsin locating legal sponsorsfor the events.ln the past,they havesuccessfully induced major companieslike the GermanTelekom, Camel, Sony, Mixery and Red Bull to placepaid adsin Technopublicationsand to act as vendorsat Technoevents. At this time the writer does not know whether there are close links befween the organizationalelite and illegal drug haffickers.However,thereare someindications that thereare significantdifferencesbetweenmembersof the organizationalelite and otherparticipantsin the scene,especiallyregardingtheirattitudestoward,andpatterns ol drug use. It is clear that managersand legally responsiblepersons(such as DJs, event organizers and magazineproducers)publicly advocatedrug abstinence.Their reasonsfor dorng so arepartly to avoid personaltrouble, and partly for moral reasons. Despite thesepublic claims, however,somemembersof the organizationalelite are known to be avid consumersofexpensive alcoholicbeveragesand cocaine. Techno events and those enthusiastswho considerthemselvesconnoisseursof them are found largely in Techno clubs. There is some evidencethat different forms of drug consumptionare relatedto particularmusicalstylesand preferences.Kerstin Greiner suggested that, ever since "Mother Ship Techno" (one of many sub-genres of technomusic), proclivities for certaintypesof Techno music have beenlinked to 460

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Prr-r. Krcx particular drugs. This has been said to be especiailytrue for speed,cannabis,and hallucinogens.Those claims could not be empincally verified here, however,and thereforemust remain in the realm of speculation. All this cannot- at leastat first sight- be varuedas epidemiologicaily rerevanr. Two drug typeshavebeenparticularlyrelevantto Techno:alcohol andamphetamrnc derivatives.These substancesare conspicuousin Techno culture and differ from thosefound at other musicand dancescenes:at "mega events',(gigantic ravepartres such as Mayday, Time warp, Nah.rreonr, Tribar Gatheringundiuu. weekends as they have beendevelopingas ofßhoots ofgreat streetparades). The term "rave" is only being used here in a rather narrow, localizedscnse. It refersto specialeventstakingplacein locationsthatarelargeenoughto accommodate a parfyattendedby thousandsandeventensofthousandsofTechnomusicenthusiasts. These giant parties often last for ten or twelve hours or even longer, sometlmes continuingfor an entire weekend.The typical locationsfor ravesu." Lig halls or hall complexes, or open air settings.Theselarge-scaleraves offer a variety of options to participants;severaldancing areasare at their disposaland a number of DJs and DJanesare playing different stylesof Technomusic in different locations. In most instancesthese events require extensive planning and preparation. considerationsinclude,for example,the rogisticsof fooJ supplyändwastedisposal, safetymeasures,healthcare(especiallyfor problemsrelatedto ihe extremelntensrry of soundand light), room ventilation,methodsfor dealingwith the generalphysical exhaustionexperiencedby dancers,hygreric problems,and a variety oiother concems. Due to the conditionsthat characterizetheseevents,nearlyall basichumanneedsand existentialdesiresfor well-being are systematicallyand overwhelminglyfrustrated. At the conclusionofone ofthese eight or ten hour parties,the outsideobserverand non-participantmight have the impressionthat the sceneresemblesan apocalyptrc movie. Participantsappearto be exhaustedand spent.Most can be found sitting. squatting,lying, or just hangingaround;all are pale, totally worn out, and wearins dirryclothes. Despitetheir shabbyoutwardappearances, however,noneofthese young people aregrumpy or sullen,low-down or desperate.on the contrary,their tired facestyprcally reveal somethinglike complete relaxation,satisfaction,even bliss. Some obvious questionsarise: what is it about theseevents that promotesso much enjoyment, given the seeminglyoppressiveconditionsthat exist there?what makesthe usual andexpectedstandardsofphysical well-beingand creaturecomfortsunimponantto so many peopleat the sametime? The feelingof belongingto a groupof like-mindedpeoplewhile retaininga sense of individuality is a common sentimentexpressed by dancers.participantsagreethat they experiencea profound peacefulness,yet have the opportunity to apprecrate Spnrnc2002

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Hrrzuen In addition, the changes in time and space and the erotically charged atmosphere. and high rhyhm, duration, its from results that inten;iry of the musical experience and much this all dancing of sensations volume, the enthusiasticand ecstaticbody post-traditional in a "fun culh[e the call more constitutecomponentsof what academics

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community." The It is alio clear that the use of drugs within this context cannot be ignored' at look must one First' angles' two analysisof drug use must be approachedfrom as a specific be seen has to it druj use as a gineral culrural phenomenon;secondly, ftrst phÄomenon of the giant party culture of the Techno scene. With regard to the socially identifo we can issue,in all cultures though specific deflnitions differ kinds of acceptableor legal drugs as well as illicit ones.In some instancescertain fiom are forbidden status p.opl., as definedby age,gender,professionand/orhealth the within drug use and of using particular drugs.The social position of drug users rqected' cultural milieu dictatewhy certaindrugs are acceptedor occasions It may be observedthat in all cultures,especiallyduring ceremonial in societies Even such as celebrations,feastsand parties,people usea variety of drugs. include the not do like our own, we find few formal or informal socialgatheringsthat extremely is an consumption of alcohol and tobacco.In German society, alcohol and in mass common substance,consumedsymbolically in the Eucharistcelebration -a most modest quantities at the Munich Oktoberfest raucouscelebrationof beer. The bourgeoisparry in Germany invariably includesalcohol' For many yearsalcohol usehasonly playeda marginal role in the Techno-scene, despite its general popularity in German society. Its insignificance at raves is giant understandable,however, given the collective ideology that prevails at these power action, parties.Raversvalue self-revelation,the enhancementof experience, and stamina,situationswhich are counterto alcohol'sdominanteffects'In this study, however,we discoveredthat the avoidanceof alcohol is no longerthe nolrn, as sweet One factor mixed drinks and beer are increasinglybeing consumedat theseevents. drugs are illegal be that may consumption in alcohol increase to this contributing do with the have to also It may at raves. even expensive, often scarceand relatively the risk of pose that drugs are available, "bad" substances fact that very often only undesirableside effects. Despite the recent introduction of alcohol into the rave scene'a Techno party still drffers from other music and dance eventsin that alcohol is not the psychoactive that enhanceactivity, stamina, substanceof choice. Rather,licit and illicit substances at the typical rave' However' found are experience interpersonalcontactand sensual must be on drugsin order part of ravers greater thrsäoesnot meanthat all or eventhe interactionpatternsat social the that means for such an atmosphereto exist. It only

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raves are not typical, nor do they resemblethose of normal social gatheringsthat featurealcohol consumption. More concretely, typical rave drug consumptioncentersaround party substances like speedand ecstasy,drugs that are supposedto enhancephysical performance, intensi$r sensoryexperience,and facilitate increasedsocial contact.This bucolic portrayalresemblesthe faux imagesof the effectsof nicotineas createdby cigarette producers.In theravesetting,enthusiasts usecannabisto relaxandchill out.Recently, LSD and "magic mushrooms"haveappeared,althoughthe useofcocaine and crack rs not typical for the Techno scene.Heroin is widely malignedand even fearedby participants. Parfydrugsselectedfor their specificeffectsdiffer significantlyfrom otherdrugs. Ofcourse in practice,all substances produceboth desirableand undesirableeffects. Desiredeffectsof MDMA-based substances in this settingincludestatesof euphoria, relaxation,intensificationofthe music,physicalsensitivity,the sensationof warmth, theenhancement of stamina,increasedcapacityfor communicattonand interpersonal contact. Undesirableeffects include jaw grinding, muscle cramps,vertigo, heart paipitations,or depressivestates.In addition to the health risks involved when consumingsubstancesthat have beencut with unknown additives,participantsalso fear law enforcement control measrues. This form of drug use - like any other - is gpicalry embeddedin a subjective context. consequently,when talking aboutecstasyand the Technoculturewe must also addressother significant characteristicsof the scene.One striking featureof Technoeventsis the peacefulnatureofinteractionsbetweenTechnoadherentsand their amenity toward people of different backgroundsand orientations.This is not necessarilythe sameas tolerance.The peacefulness that bridgesgenders,lifestyles, age-groups, organizersand participants,etc., makesit possiblefor thesemassesto assemble underthedescnbedrave conditionsandcelebrateforhours without provoking totalchaos.Basedon our observations,theseloving and - relativeto otheryouthful musiccultures- imtatingly peaceful interactionsare characteristicof the Techno scene. In theTcchnoscenewe find a factionof the drug culturethat is alsoinfluencedby thesocietyas a whoie. By and largethis groupcan be explainedwithin thecontextof thedominantvalue orientationsof the entireGermanculhue.The desireto be part of a limitlessquasi-family, to belong to the "unity," and to "have fun togetherwith others"seemtypical for the "common raver." In contrast,participantsalsocharactenze theseeventsas opportunities;to be different,to rid themselvesof inhibitions,to be conspicuous, to celebratetheir own party within the largerparty and to participatein theirown personalshows.Apparentlythe aim is to be like nobodyelsein order to be likeeverybody- or to be like everybodyin order to be someonespecial.In brief, the aimis the mutual productionof a collectiveleisureecstasy. ;rSrnlrc2002

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Hrrzlrn asours tnterpret Someobserversand analystsof drug usepatternsin societiessuch a comprehensive the emergenceof ecstasyand other party drugs as indicationsof asheroinand such drugs "hard" consciousness-muting and a*ay from cultural Änd, the without hindcring recreationally used be can that substances alcohol,and toward theseso-called user's ability to participate in normal everyday life. we note that ..light drugs" are not seenas addictivesubstances being usedby dropouts,but rather weekend fun in a as vehiclÄ for fantasy and pleasure for people searching for communiryof likc-mindedindividuals. post-traditional In this sense,the Techno scenereflects the characteristicsof a socializedinto' or is one born which a community is nol part-timecommunify.This time and at a of amount limited for a reasons, however,but one chosenfor aesthetic place' an imaginary an idea, more than no low cost. Such a communlty is of course it because authority possesses and existence its althoughit existsthroughthe beliefin on but rather and obligation coercion on is ascribedauthoriry. Its power is not based spirit. seduction,on the voluntary emotionalbonding of the membersto a mutual it can condensation of "In the moments According to rave participant zygmunt, and of consciousness states altered The literally ."u.h u breath-taking intensity." party" often' "fabulous a having when pleasurablesensationsthat raversexperience "ultimatekick" i appearto othersas somethingquitedifferent.Participantsachievethe through predominantly scene Techno the during the great events thaicharacterize incredible of many publication widespread the amphltamine derivatives despite wamings about unintendedside effects. 'IhJforegoing observationssuggestthat drug usein theTechnosceneis not likely whetherthese to be affected by any attemptsat controlling it through drug policy, will only pattems use these of measuresbe "harsh" or "soft." The epidcmiology changes life Individual changeif and when the Techno culture becomesoutmoded. be initiated can also They will normally be accompaniedby a retreatfrom the scene. when a personlocatesa more desirablealtemativeactivity.In this sense,Johannes passiveobjects Flerwig--Lempprecently arguedthat we shouldnot treatdrug usersas of responsible capable of our f,aternalisticmeddling,but ratheras individualswho are asin difficulty, of decision-makrng.In doing so, we are likely to avoid a great deal As something. many instancesdoing nothing may be more beneficial than doing be must nothing Tom Hodgkinson once said, "lf you want a healthy society,then done.Justlet the peopleget on with it"'

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Nores I The data and relations reportedhere are basedon a standardizedsurvey that was administeredon April 30, 2001,to visitorsat "Mayday," a giant Techno event.This studywas conductedby theChairof GeneralSociology,Univcrsity o f D o r t m u n d , u n d e r t h e r e s p o n s i b r l i t yo f I v o n n e B e m e r b u r ga n d T e r e s a Heidegger. RereneNces Kuntz& Helmut 1998 Ecstasy- uuf der Suchenach demverlorenen Gliick. Vorbeugungund 14/ege auf der Suchl und Abhdngigkeit.Weinheimund Bascl:Beltz. Neumeycr,J., Schmrdt-Semisch, ll. 1997 Dcstasy- Designfiir die Seele?Freiburg im Breisgau:Lambertus. Schroers,A. 2 0 0 1 Z u m D r o g e n g e b r a u c hi m T e c h n o - P a r t y - S e t t i n gE.r k e n n t n i s s ed e r Drogentrendforschung und Ausblicke auf ein Drogeninformationsund Monitoring-Netzwerk.In : I I itzler,Ronald/Pfadenhauer, M ichaela(Hrsg.), Techno-Soziologie.Erkundnngen einer Jugendkultur (pp. 213-23I). Opladen:Leske& Budrich. Thomasius, R. (IJrsg.) 1999 Ecslasy - Ilirkungen, Risiken. Interveiltioilen. Ein Leitfadenfir die Pru.tis. Stuttgart:Enke. H. Boldt, S. & Tensil,M.-D. Tossmann, 2001 Ecslasy- "Einbahnstru/3e"in die Abhöngigkeit?Drogenkonsummuster In der Techno-Party-S:enewul deren Veränderungerritt kingsscltnittlichcr Perspektive.Im Auftrag der Bundeszentrale fiir gesundheitliche Aufklärung. Köln. Walder,P., & Amedt, G. 1997 Ecstasy& Co. Alles iiber Part)'drogen.Reinbekbei l{amburg: Rorvohlt. Wirth. N. 1997 Ecstasy,Mushroortts,Speecl& Co. Dus htfo Buch. Düsseldorf:Ilcon.