TRANSLATION OF IMPLICIT MEANING

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Al Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University College of Languages and Translation Department of English Language and Literature

The Translation of Implicit Meaning from English into Arabic in the Novel:

One, Two, Buckle My Shoe

Najeya O. Althobiani

Submitted to the Department of English Language and Literature of the College of Languages and Translation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Translation

Dr. Wasef M. Marashdeh, Advisor

1430 - 2009

Translation of Implicit Meaning iii

Abstract This study describes how implicit meaning is translated from English into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit meanings found in the novel One, Two, Buckle My

Shoe, by Agatha Christie, including the English version and the Arabic translation, ‫إﺑﺰﯾﻢ اﻟﺤﺬاء‬. The study is based on exploring three different kinds of implicit meaning: implicit referential, implicit organizational, and implicit situational. The analysis of these kinds of meanings shows that a translator must be aware of the large chunk of implicit information in literary texts and make essential adjustments in order to avoid misinterpretation of the original message. The study shows that all different meanings can be translated into Arabic, explicitly or implicitly, by focusing on personal, demonstrative, and comparative references, as well as the grammatical relationship between sentences. Additionally, there are other aspects a translator must bear in mind, such as cultural differences. Explicit translation is usually used to avoid ambiguity, especially when the implicit meaning is not clear after being translated implicitly to the target language.

‫‪Translation of Implicit Meaning iv‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻠﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻒ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺿﻤﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮواﯾﺔ "إﺑﺰﯾﻢ اﻟﺤﺬاء" ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗﺒﺔ أﺟﺎﺛﺎ ﻛﺮﯾﺴﺘﻲ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف ﺛﻼث أﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ‪ .‬اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻤﻲ واﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ اﻟﻈﺮﻓﻲ‪ .‬ﯾُﻈﮭﺮ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ھﺬه اﻷﻧﻮاع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ أﻧﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ أن ﯾﻜﻮن واﻋﯿﺎً ﻟﻜﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻀﻤﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺼﻮص اﻷدﺑﯿﺔ وﻋﻠﯿﮫ أن ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻼت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﯾﺘﻔﺎدى اﻟﺘﻔﺴﯿﺮ اﻟﺨﺎﻃﺊ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ اﻷﺻﻠﯿﺔ‪ .‬ﺗُﻈﮭﺮ ھﺬه اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫أن ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎن ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﮭﺎ إﻣﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺿﻤﻨﻲ أو ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺮﯾﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ اﻟﺘﻮﺿﯿﺤﻲ واﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ اﻟﺨﺎص ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻨﺤﻮﯾﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ‪ .‬ھﻨﺎك ﺟﻮاﻧﺐ أﺧﺮى ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ أن ﯾﻀﻌﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ا ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﺜﻞ اﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎت اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﯿﺔ وﻋﺎدةً ﻣﺎ ﺗُﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ اﻟﺼﺮﯾﺤﺔ ﺑﮭﺪف ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺢ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺠﻨﺐ اﻟﻐﻤﻮض‪.‬‬

Translation of Implicit Meaning vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS I

II

INTRODUCTION Introduction

1

Significance of the study

2

Statement of the Problem

3

Research Questions

3

Limitation of the Study

3

LITERATURE REVIEW

4

Types of Translation

4

The Theory of Meaning

4

Types of Meaning

6

Implicit Meaning

8

Implicit Referential Meaning

10

Types of Reference Implicit Organizational Reference

11

Ellipsis Sentence

12

Passive Sentence

12

Substitution Word

13

Implicit Situational Reference

III

10

13

Implicatures

14

Summary

14

METHODOLOGY

16

Source of Data

16

Research Procedure

16

Translation of Implicit Meaning vii

IV

V

Data Analysis

17

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

19

Analysis of the Research

19

Discussion

43

CONCLUSION

45

RECOMMENDATIONS

46

REFERENCES

47

Translation of Implicit Meaning 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Translation is an essential tool for communication between people of different cultures. As pointed out by Gerding-Salas (2000), “The main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples” (p. 1). Translation plays an important role in conveying ideas, thoughts, and messages from the source language into the target language, especially given the non-stop evolution of knowledge and technology. A good translation renders all the ideas, thoughts, and messages to the target language in a reasonably and natural way. Crystal (1992) defined translation as the process or result of changing the expressions of one language, which is called the source language, into the expressions of another, which is called the target language, so the meanings correspond. According to Larson (1984), effective translation transfers the meaning (semantics) of the source language into the target language and can be achieved by changing the form (lexicon and grammar) of the first language into the form of a second language. The original meaning must stay constant. A good translator must bear in mind that one form is used to represent several alternative meanings. For example, the English word run has different meanings. It has a lexical meaning when it is said in isolation and denotative meanings, which a word has in context with other words. -

The boy runs.

‫ﯾﺮﻛﺾ اﻟﺼﺒﻲ‬

-

The motor runs.

‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬

-

His nose runs.

‫ﯾﺴﯿﻞ أﻧﻔﮫ‬

Translation of Implicit Meaning 2 In order to convey meaning adequately, a translator must be aware of the fact that there are many kinds of meaning. One area of concern in conveying accurate meaning in the natural form of the target language includes consideration of both explicit and implicit information. Implicit information refers to shared information that is part of the total information assumed by the writer. Explicit information refers to information that is overtly stated by lexical items and grammatical forms. For example, the sentence “Peter made the Queen's list.” contains implicit meaning in Queen's list. If the audience does not recognize the meaning of Queen's list, then the translator needs to provide explicit information: “Peter made the Queen of England's yearly honors list.” Significance of the Study One of the aims of translation is to communicate the approximate meaning in a second language as was communicated in the first. The study focuses on the principle of meaning-based translation rather than form-based translation. Implicit texts have meanings that are not overt. Understanding and taking into account the various types of meaning—such as referential meaning, organizational meaning, and situational meaning—in translation help in reproducing an ideal translation that is accurate, natural, and equivalent to the source text in terms of meaning and style. This must be accomplished without causing ambiguity or sacrificing the unity of meaning. The objective of this research is to provide understanding about different kinds of meaning; implicit referential meaning, implicit organizational meaning, and implicit situational meaning, and to find out how, by paying attention to the perspective of semantic, pragmatic, and discourse analysis, these meanings are translated into Arabic.

Translation of Implicit Meaning 3 Statement of the Problem This research needs to be conducted to show that implicit meanings can lead to misunderstanding and misrepresentation in comprehending texts in the target language. The explication of implicit information changes the meaning of the translated text. In this paper, the writer shows that recent insights from communication theory can help the literary translator to better cope with the problem of implicit information. Research Questions The current research attempts to answer the following questions that deal with accuracy, clarity, and naturalness: 1. How does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. To what extent does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Is the form of the translation easy to read and does it use natural receptor language, grammar, and style? Limitations of the Study As with any study, this present one has limitations. The study focuses on and analyzes three kinds of implicit meaning: implicit referential meaning, implicit organizational meaning, and implicit situational meaning, which are found in the novel One, Two, Buckle

My Shoe by Agatha Christie, including the Arabic translation ‫إﺑﺰﯾﻢ اﻟﺤﺬاء‬. Due to time limitations, the researcher did not cover and analyze all of the implicit information in the Arabic translation of the novel. Data is collected randomly in relation to the three different kinds of implicit meaning; implicit referential meaning, implicit organizational meaning and implicit situational meaning, so the results are based on the chosen data.