2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODES HANDBOOK

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODES HANDBOOK ... Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of ... Plumbing Code. 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLU...

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2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODES HANDBOOK

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2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODES HANDBOOK

R. Dodge Woodson

McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

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Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress

Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 1 0 9 8 7 6

ISBN 0-07-145368-7

The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry S. Hager and the production supervisor was Pamela A. Pelton. It was set in Times New Roman by Lone Wolf Enterprises, Ltd. The art director for the cover was Anthony Landi. Printed and bound by RR Donnelley. This book was printed on acid-free paper. McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please write to the Director of Special Sales, McGraw-Hill Professional, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298. Or contact your local bookstore.

Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ("McGraw-Hill") from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.

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This book is dedicated to Adam and Afton, the two brightest stars in my life.

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CONTENTS

Acknowledgments Introduction xvii

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CHAPTER 1: DEFINITIONS

1.1

Words, Terms, and Definitions

1.2

CHAPTER 2: ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

2.1

What Does the Plumbing Code Include? How the Code Pertains to Existing Plumbing Small Repairs Relocation and Demolition of Existing Structures Materials Code Officers Plumbing Permits Multiple Plumbing Codes CHAPTER 3: GENERAL REGULATIONS Regulations Existing Conditions Permits Code Enforcement Inspections What Inspectors Look For What Powers Do Plumbing Inspectors Have? What Can You Do to Change a Code Officer’s Decision? Tips on Health and Safety Trusses Pipe Protection Backfilling Flood Protection Penetrating an Exterior Wall Freezing Corrosion Seismic Zones vii

2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.10 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.14 3.16 3.16

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Firestop Protection Combustible Installations Noncombustible Installations The Inspection Process Pipe Connections Condensate Disposal Testing a DWV System Working with the System Instead of against It CHAPTER 4: FIXTURES What Fixtures Are Required? Single-Family Residence Multi-Family Buildings Nightclubs and Restaurants Day-Care Facilities Employee and Customer Facilities Handicap Fixtures Where Are Handicap Fixtures Required? Installation Considerations Handicap Toilet Facilities Handicap Fixtures Toilets Sinks and Lavatories Sink and Lavatory Faucets Bathing Units Drinking Units Standard Fixture Installation Regulations Standard Fixture Placement Securing and Sealing Fixtures The Facts about Fixture Installations Typical Residential Fixture Installation Commercial Fixture Applications Special Fixtures for Healthcare Sterilizers Clinical Sinks Vacuum Fluid-Suction Systems Special Vents Water Supply Backflow Prevention

3.16 3.16 3.17 3.17 3.17 3.19 3.22 3.23 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.18 4.18 4.20 4.21 4.28 4.32 4.32 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.35 4.35

CHAPTER 5: WATER HEATERS

5.1

General Provisions Installing Water Heaters Making Connections Safety Requirements Relief Valves

5.1 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4

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Venting Water Heaters Vent Connectors Supporting Vent Systems Vent Offsets Termination Area Venting Multiple Appliances Existing Systems Draft Hoods Existing Masonry Chimneys Connectors Mechanical Draft Systems Ventilating Hoods Safety Commentary CHAPTER 6: WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION

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5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.10 5.10 5.10 5.10 5.11 5.11 5.12 5.12 5.13 5.13 6.1

The Main Water Pipe Water Distribution Fixture Supplies Pressure-Reducing Valves Banging Pipes Water Tanks Pressurized Water Tanks Supporting Your Pipe Water Conservation Antiscald Precautions Valve Regulations Cutoffs Backflow Prevention Hot-Water Installations Water Heaters Purging a System of Contaminants Working with Wells Construction Requirements for Wells Dug and Bored Wells Drilled and Driven Wells Sizing Potable Water Systems Some More Facts to Keep You Out of Trouble

6.1 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.14 6.15 6.23 6.24 6.26 6.26 6.27 6.27 6.28 6.30 6.34

CHAPTER 7: SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

7.1

Pipe Sizing Sizing Building Drains and Sewers Sizing Example Horizontal Branches Stack Sizing Pipe Installations Grading Your Pipe

7.1 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.11 7.11

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Joints Supporting Your Pipe Fittings Offsets in Horizontal Piping Horizontal to Vertical Changes of Direction Vertical to Horizontal Changes in Direction

7.12 7.14 7.18 7.19 7.19 7.22

CHAPTER 8: INDIRECT AND SPECIAL WASTES

8.1

Special Wastes

8.8

CHAPTER 9: VENTS

9.1

Transportation of Sewer Gas Protecting Trap Seals Tiny Tornados Do All Plumbing Fixtures Have Vents? Individual Vents Relief Vents Circuit Vents Vent Sizing Using Developed Length Branch Vents Vent Stacks Stack Vents Common Vents Island Vents Wet Vents Crown Vents Vents for Sumps and Sewer Pumps Vent-Installation Requirements Supporting Your Pipe Working With a Combination Waste and Vent System

9.1 9.2 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.12 9.13 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.18 9.22 9.22 9.26 9.36 9.38

CHAPTER 10: TRAPS, CLEAN-OUTS, AND INTERCEPTORS

10.1

Clean-outs Where Are Clean-outs Required? What Else Do I Need to Know about Clean-outs? Acceptable Types of Clean-outs Very Big Clean-outs Traps P-Traps S-Traps Drum Traps Bell Traps House Traps Crown-Vented Traps Other Traps

10.1 10.1 10.5 10.5 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.9

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Does Every Fixture Require an Individual Trap? Trap Sizes Tailpiece Length Standpipe Height Proper Trap Installation When Is a Trap Not a Trap? Backwater Valves CHAPTER 11: STORM DRAINAGE Sizing a Horizontal Storm Drain or Sewer Sizing Rain Leaders and Gutters Roof Drains More Sizing Information Some Facts about Storm-Water Piping Sump Pumps Variations

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10.9 10.10 10.10 10.10 10.11 10.11 10.16 11.1 11.1 11.4 11.6 11.6 11.6 11.9 11.10

CHAPTER 12: SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS

12.1

General Requirements Sterilizers Aspirators Medical Gases Oxygen Systems More Detailed Requirements

12.1 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.3 12.3

CHAPTER 13: RECYCLING GRAY WATER

13.1

Collection Reservoirs Collection Systems for Toilets and Urinals Irrigation Systems Site Location Seepage Trenches Seepage Beds Construction Requirements Backfilling Distribution Piping

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.4 13.4 13.4

CHAPTER 14: REFERENCED STANDARDS

14.1

CHAPTER 15: RAINFALL RATES

15.1

CHAPTER 16: DEGREE DAYS AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES

16.1

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CHAPTER 17: EVALUATING SITES AND THEIR REQUIREMENTS

17.1

Area for a Replacement System Slope Borings Soil Appearance Ground Water Bedrock Alluvial and Colluvial Deposits Perk Tests Code Enforcement Monitoring a System Site Requirements Seepage Pits Soil Maps

17.2 17.2 17.2 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7

CHAPTER 18: MATERIALS

18.1

Tanks Steel and Fiberglass Tanks Manholes Pipe, Joints and Connections Prohibited Joints Using the Right Materials

18.1 18.2 18.3 18.3 18.5 18.5

CHAPTER 19: SIZING AND INSTALLING SOIL ABSORPTION SYSTEMS 19.1 Seepage Trench Excavations Seepage Beds Seepage Pits Excavation and Construction Aggregate and Backfill Distribution Piping Observation Pipes Other Rules Pressure Distribution Systems

19.1 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.4 19.4 19.5

CHAPTER 20: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

20.1

CHAPTER 21: TANKS

21.1

Inlets and Outlets Manholes Inspection Opening Sizing Installation Basics

21.1 21.2 21.2 21.3 21.3

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Maintenance Holding Tanks

21.4 21.4

CHAPTER 22: MOUND SYSTEMS

22.1

CHAPTER 23: USING THE CODE IN THE REAL WORLD

23.1

Lax Jobs Strict Code Enforcement Safety Fees Know Your Inspectors Local Jurisdictions Common Sense

23.1 23.3 23.4 23.4 23.4 23.4 23.5

APPENDIX A: FAST FIELD DATA

A.1

APPENDIX B: PLUMBING MATH

B.1

INDEX

I.1

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the International Code Council, Inc. for their cooperation and permission to reprint certain illustrations and tables. This material was taken from two books published by the International Code Council, Inc. Each appearance of the material is noted with the book from which is was taken.

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INTRODUCTION

Getting your license to work as a professional plumber is your ticket to more money. However, many people struggle to pass the exam required to obtain their plumbing license. Even people who attend vocational schools can have difficulty when the day for plumbing exams rolls around. R. Dodge Woodson is a master plumber with over 30 years of experience who is also an educator. He has taught code preparation classes in the Maine Technical College System. As a seasoned author, Woodson is well known throughout the professional plumbing community. His writing style and ability to turn complicated tasks into easy-to-understand terms makes Woodson and this book your guide to getting your plumbing license with less stress. There are other books available to help you prepare for a plumbing exam, but all you have to do is compare them to this book, and you will quickly see the differences. For example, compare the number of sample questions in this book with the number in competitive titles. You will find that this guide offers far more study questions and answers. What is the benefit to you from using this study guide? Your odds for passing your plumbing exam on the first attempt are greatly improved. This is due to Woodson’s experience as both a plumber and educator. How important is it to pass your licensing exam on your first attempt? It is very important, if you are interested in making more money. If you are an apprentice and are preparing to take a journeyman exam, think of how much more money you will be worth once you have a journeyman license. You can do the math, but it is substantial. For journeyman plumbers wanting to become master plumbers, the financial gains can be even greater. For example, with a master’s license, you could go into business for yourself. It is simple to see the value in getting your license as soon as possible. Thumb through the following pages and read some of the study questions. See how many you think you know the correct answer for. Then look at the back of that chapter and see how well you did. If you didn’t do well, you need this book badly. Those who do reasonably well on the questions to begin with will gain the advantage of seeing what areas of knowledge that they are weak in. The low cost of a study guide is nearly nothing when compared to the amount of money that you will be losing each time you fail to obtain your plumbing license. xvii

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2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODES HANDBOOK

You will notice in some of the tables in this book that there are solid black lines running vertically on sections of the tables. These black lines indicate code changes for the 2006 International Plumbing Code. When you see solid black lines, please pay attention to them as changes from the 2003 International Plumbing Code. Code-Alert text boxes have been inserted in this edition to help readers identify current changes in the past plumbing code. When you see a Code-Alert box, it is meant to point out key code changes for your consideration.